Food is a basic need for life, yet it is one of the factors that many science fiction novels gloss over. What’s for dinner probably isn’t important to most science fiction storylines. I agree with this most of the time but you, as the world builder, should know how your character’s basic needs are fulfilled. The space ships often have some high-end tech, like air scrubbers, in order to deal with replenishing air and water, but carrying tons of groceries for a long voyage isn’t feasible. Of course, some stories use cryogenics to avoid issues, but if it isn’t available in your world? How do your spacemen get food?
Star Trek simplified the problem of unending supplies of Saurian brandy and Earl Grey tea by inventing replicators. The early 1966 show mentioned chefs in the first season episode, “Charlie X” but after that, food simply appeared when the right memory card was inserted. Otherwise, the cuisine had a tendency to look like Play-doh geometric shapes whether the crew ate on the ship or planetside.
In Star Wars, the writers didn’t deal with food since much of the action took place on various settled planet. In those cases, they ate whatever fruits, veggies, and grilled indigenous creatures that wandered by. One wonders if some of the Storm Troopers might think, “Ewoks, thems good eatin’!” Most trips on the ships were so short that a few bagfuls of groceries could allow everyone to get by.
Several episodes of Firefly focused on vittles being a finite and valuable resource for the frontier planets. They stole and sold protein bars to colonists and smuggled cows to backwater planets. It also pointed out how rare and expensive raw vegetables and fruit were since Shepard Book used a small box of strawberries to gain passage on the ship.
Yet in my opinion the one that handled food as a limited resource the best was The Martian. This film showed eatables coming in a finite number of vacuum-packed allotments until Mark Watney began growing potatoes to survive. How much would this story have suffered if he simply used a replicator? A lot. The film’s tension was all in how he survived, which included stress over dwindling supplies and partial starvation.
My Choices for My Book
In my manuscript, Ride the Comet, my people live in asteroid mines. Water and air are purchased by the huge tankful and put through scrubbers to make the resources last longer. However, no process is 100% effective, so the miners must occasionally buy more. Since the families live within the rocky walls permanently, I felt that shipping foodstuff in from old Earth should be expensive enough to cripple the buyers. Therefore, somehow the miners had to produce food for themselves.
The idea of greenhouses and hydroponics is cool because they can help clean gray water and scrub the air. The one thing an asteroid mine could provide is a large room. Dirt from the mine mixed with composted trash could eventually lead to enough soil for crops inside a cavern and hydroponics basically works soil-free. Yet that answer isn’t as simple as picking any seeds you want and jamming it into the ground. I had to think about what crops grew well in these conditions. Wheat and sugar cane require a lot of space, water, and air to get the end products of flour and sugar, so they aren’t good candidates. On the other hand, lettuce, beans, peas, tomatoes, and strawberries produce large crops without a lot of soil depth or leftover biological trash.
What about meat? Lifting cows out of Earth’s gravity well and transporting them to the Belt would waste considerable resources. Some stories solve this by only shipping fertilized eggs and artificial wombs, which I suppose would work if you had that kind of tech. However, once the cow, chicken, or pig (for examples) are born, they still need to eat something. Growing grass for cows takes valuable area from human-supporting crops.
My solution in Ride the Comet? Some small animals, like chickens, mini pigs, or rabbits are transported from the home planet and bred for food. Tanks could be set up for growing fish while purifying water. Beef would likely stay a pricey canned or dried treat while a thick steak could cost a month’s salary. Most likely, the average cook would use supplies like meats, dairy, flour and sugar sparingly because they would all be imports and therefore expensive.
I got my ideas about the meats from my year of living in Japan in 1989. Since the country is an island, beef was costly compared to pork and chicken. In addition, any non-fish meat tended to be expensive and most were purchased as small chunks rather than roasts or whole chickens. Japanese recipes only called for a quarter of the amounts I used in America. For example, I might use a pound of hamburger in my spaghetti in America but only a quarter pound while cooking in Japan. I filled in the rest with mushrooms, olives, and onions and held off on the Parmesan cheese. Also, dairy products were not as common as in the United States either. We found milk, cheese, and sour cream in small quantities in the grocery stores but they are not used in most traditional Japanese recipes.
Of course, your story probably doesn’t have to go to this much detail, but you should know them in your head as you write. Food acquisition must make sense. If your Captain Courageous Spaceman has a hungering for hamburgers all the time, you must know where the beef and buns are coming from even if the captain doesn’t. Little details like this is what makes the reader dive into and stay in a story rather than going, “Hang on! They’ve been on a five-year mission for three years. Where’d the apples come from?” Keeping the reader engaged in the hardest part so make sure the answer to “what’s for dinner?” actually makes sense in your world.